HomeResources Content based Web Resources CBI


 Stryker and Leaver (1989) defined CBI as "the total integration of language learning and content learning
(p.33)." In CBI they explain, the focus of instruction has shifted from the learning of language per se to
learning of language through the study of subject matter that responds to a variety of reader interests.
Three characteristics that are essential for success in a CBI-based curriculum (Stryker and an leaver
1997) CBI is based on a subject-matter core, CBI uses authentic language and texts, CBI is appropriate
to the needs of a specific group of students.

 First, CBI promotes negotiation of meaning, which is known to enhance language acquisition. Students
should negotiate both form and content (Lightbrown & Spada, 1993). Second, Second language acquisition
is enhanced by comprehensible input (Krashen, 1982; 1985), which is a key pedagogical technique in
content-based instruction; however, comprehensible input alone does not fill students need for form-
focused content instruction. An explicit focus on relevant and contextually appropriate language forms to
support content learning (Lyster, 1987; Met, 1991; Swain, 1985). Third, language learning becomes more
concrete rather than abstract (Genesee, 1994). Fourth, the integration of language and content in
instruction respects the specificity of functional language use. It recognizes that meaning changes
depending upon context and more sophisticated, complex language is best taught within a framework that
focuses on complex and authentic content (Genesee, 1994).

Read the following web references to build basic knowledge on CBI :
· Stephen Davies’s Content Based Instruction in EFL Contexts from I-TESL-Journal
· Content-Based Instruction from Ohio ESL
· Dr. Loretta Kasper's Content-Based ESL Web Site
· Using the Internet for Content based instruction from EverythingESL

Read CBI books listed below for deeper knowledge :
· Brinton, D. M., & Master, P. (Eds.). (1997). New ways in content-based instruction. Alexandria,
 VA : Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages
· Haley, M. H. & Austin, T.Y. (2004). Content-Based Second Language Teaching and Learning :
 An Interactive Approach. Verlag: Allyn & Bacon.
· Kasper, L.F. (2000). Content-based college ESL instruction. Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum.
· Snow, MA, & Brinton, DM (Eds.). (1997). The content-based classroom: Perspectives on integrating
 language and content. New York: Addison Wesley.
· Stryker, S. B., & Leaver, B. L. (Eds.). (1997). Content-based instruction for the foreign language
 classroom: Models and methods. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press